Feb 17, 2017

How to break into a Wax Seal

In light of the reports of many forgeries in the antiquities world I came upon this description of how ancient people read wax sealed documents without detection from the recipients. I found this fascinating.

The description is given by Lucian of Samosata (Λουκιανὸς ὁ Σαμοσατεύς, Latin: Lucianus Samosatensis) who lived ca. AD 125–180.
"Listen, therefore, in order to be able to show up such impostors. 
The first, my dear Celsus, was a well-known method; heating a needle, he removed the seal by melting through the wax underneath it, and after reading the contents he warmed the wax once more with the needle, both that which was under the thread and that which contained the seal, and so stuck it together without difficulty. 
Another method was by using what they call plaster; this is a compound of Bruttian pitch, asphalt, pulverized gypsum, wax, and gum Arabic. Making his plaster out of all these materials and warming it over the fire, he applied it to the seal, which he had previously wetted with saliva, and took a mould of the impression. Then, since the plaster hardened at once, after easily opening and reading the scrolls, he applied the wax and made an impression upon it precisely like the original, just as one would with a gem.
Let me tell you a third method, in addition to these. Putting marble-dust into the glue with which they glue books and making a paste of it, he applied that to the seal while it was still soft, and then, as it grows hard at once, more solid than horn or even iron, he removed it and used it for the impression. There are many other devices to this end, but they need not all be mentioned, for fear that we might seem to be wanting in taste." (Lucian Alexander the False Prophet, 2122.)1
1. Lucian of Samosata, Anacharsis or Athletics. Menippus or The Descent into Hades. On Funerals. A Professor of Public Speaking. Alexander the False Prophet. Essays in Portraiture. Essays in Portraiture Defended. The Goddesse of Surrye, trans. A. M. Harmon, vol. 4, 8 vols., LCL 162 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1925),  234235.

Feb 8, 2017

The twelfth Dead Sea Scroll cave is confirmed and I was there.

Cave 53 (now Q12) identifying the artifacts
as they are removed from the cave in buckets and
transferred to cardboard boxes for processing.

In January of this year (Dec 28, 2016-January 25, 2017), I had the privilege of working on the excavation of the newly announced Dead Sea Scroll cave number 12 (See news links below) with my colleague Dr. Randall Price of Liberty University, USA and Dr. Oren Gutfeld and his assistant Ahiad Ovadia of Hebrew University Institute of Archaeology, Israel. Several Liberty university students and volunteers also worked with us. My role was registrar of finds and it involved the proper recording and processing of all artifacts that were discovered in the cave (some 400), so I was able to see the artifacts firsthand and can verify the accuracy of those finds mentioned in the article published by Hebrew University. I was assisted by Eva Palmer of Liberty University and Dr. Lemar Cooper of Criswell College.

Cave 53, located west of the Qumran plateau, was supported by the Civil Administration of Judea and Samaria (KMAT), by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority, and the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA), and is a part of the new “Operation Scroll” launched at the IAA by its Director-General, Mr. Israel Hasson, to undertake systematic surveys and to excavate the caves in the Judean Desert. This present cave is now the 12th Dead Sea Scroll Cave to be identified and will be designated Q12. For a report on Operation Scroll that was launched in 1993, see Neil Asher Silberman, “Operation Scroll,” Archaeology 47/2 (1994): 27–28; Neil Asher Silberman, “Operation Scroll,” in K. D. Vitelli (ed.), Archaeological Ethics (London: Altamira Press, 1996): 132–35.

Cave 53 is now the12th Dead Sea Scroll Cave to be identified and will be designated Q12. The letter Q refers to a Qumran cave standing in front of the number to indicate that this is now an official number for Qumran documents. Normally Qumran caves are designated with the number of the cave in front of the Q as in 1QIsa for the scroll of Isaiah found in Qumran cave 1 or 4Q175 (4QTest) for the Testimonia scroll from Qumran cave 4. However, as Gutfeld explains
“Like Cave 8, in which scroll jars but no scrolls were found, this cave will receive the designation Q12 (the Q=Qumran standing in front of the number to indicate no scrolls were found).” Press Release
The cave was originally excavated in 1993 and reported in a 2002 journal article by Cohen and Yisraeli. Although the article is in Hebrew, the English summary on page 207 of the article states:
“Two caves and a rock shelter were discovered south of Nahal Qumran. . . The entrance to Cave XII/53 spans the entire width of the cavity (Fig. 4); two pillars for supporting the ceiling and a thin wall (Plan 3 [The layout of the cave is provided on page 209]) were built inside the cave. Four strata were discernible in the excavation, but the finds were mixed in part of the area. Stratum I dates to the Early Islamic period; Stratum 2 to the Early Roman period based on the pottery vessels uncovered in it (Fig. 5:2-5); Stratum 3 to the Pottery Neolithic period (Fig. 6:2, 3, 5-1 O); and Stratum 4, in which Byblos arrowheads were found (Fig. 7: I, 2), to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period.” Cohen, Rudolf, and Yigal Yisraeli. “The Excavations of Rock Shelter XII/50 and in Caves XII/52-53.” Atiqot 41, no. 2 (2002): 207–13.
It is worth noting that the photograph on page 207 of the 2002 article by Cohen and Yisraeli miss-identified the cave as number 50, but it is actually cave 53. Drawings of the pottery and flint blades were provided on pages 209 and 211.
All our artifacts were identified with Cave 53 for processing (see the cardboard box in the top photograph).
Dust from our two sifting stations.
All the dirt from the cave was sifted
to find the smallest find.

Initially no connection with the Dead Sea Scrolls was made from the excavation in 2002, however in 2006 Dr. Randall Price identified Cave 53 as a good potential for containing Dead Sea Scrolls. The initial read of the stratigraphy of the cave in 2002 has been confirmed by our recent systematic and thorough excavation of Cave 53, with a number of additional finds (over 400) including Qumran pottery and a small leather scroll piece (7 cm). We can now say without question that the cave did once contain some of the famous Dead Sea Scrolls.

Unfortunately, the cave had been looted probably by local Bedouin in the past looking for valuable scrolls. We did have one of the relatives of the Bedouin family, who first discovered the caves, working with us Joseph Ta’amarah. What an amazing eye he had for finds. Gutfeld reported “The jars were all broken and their contents removed, and the discovery towards the end of the excavation of a pair of iron pickaxe heads from the 1950s (stored within the tunnel for later use) proves the cave was looted.” Press Release

The new designation of Q12 is due to the fact the we have now confirmed the presence of Dead Sea Scrolls in cave 53, even though as Dr. Gutfeld stated no scrolls were actually found. Gutfeld reported
“Although at the end of the day no scroll was found, and instead we ‘only’ found a piece of parchment rolled up in a jug that was being processed for writing, the findings indicate beyond any doubt that the cave contained scrolls that were stolen. The findings include the jars in which the scrolls and their covering were hidden, a leather strap for binding the scroll, a cloth that wrapped the scrolls, tendons and pieces of skin connecting fragments, and more. . . The finding of pottery and of numerous flint blades, arrowheads, and a decorated stamp seal made of carnelian, a semi-precious stone, also revealed that this cave was used in the Chalcolithic and the Neolithic periods.” Press Release
 In addition
"Among the organic findings were dozens and dozens of olive pits, dates, various kinds of nuts, some whole nuts, which were left unshelled nuts, several thin ropes, bits of woven baskets, and a few pieces of fabric. The interior of the cave was covered by a wicker bed of palm and thin brush branches, which were used by the dwellers of the cave as a kind of mat. Once the first stratum was removed, findings from the Chalcolithic period were uncovered (5th century BC), as well as the Cermaic Neolithic and the pre-Neolithic period (8th-9th centuries BC)—mainly pottery and flint tools, including arrow heads, various blades and an complete seal made of red Carnelian stone." IAA reporting to YNet News
This is an accurate picture of the various finds among the organic material that we registered.
The rolled-up piece of leather was carefully collected and transported to an archaeological conservation laboratory at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. From there, the scroll was transported to another conservation laboratory under the auspices of the Israel Antiquities Authority. Tests have revealed that the scroll was empty and was most likely in the process of being prepared to be written on. IAA reporting to YNet News

If the piece of leather scroll (orphan) can be linked to one of the scrolls in existence then the designation would likely change to 12Q1 for the parent scroll. There are still more tests and research to be done on the many finds that have come out of cave 53 (aka Q12).

The Dead Sea Scrolls were originally discovered in 1946 and 1947, with numerous fragments surfacing on the black market since. There are some 930 documents represented in the total Dead Sea Scroll collection, with approximately 15,000 fragments representing 600 documents from Cave 4 alone. Here is a summary of the story of the Dead Sea Scroll discovery. Also, an accessible pamphlet on The Dead Sea Scrolls by Dr. Randall Price is available from Rose Publishing, 2005.
According to Evans,
“Price thinks there may even be a thirteenth cave near the Qumran ruins. Unlike the newly discovered Cave 12, the mouth of the suspected thirteenth cave is concealed — which means there is a chance that it has not been looted. If that is the case, more texts could be discovered. If that happens, who knows what new things we might learn?” Craig Evans

It was a great privilege to be part of this historic event and to help identify the first Dead Sea Scroll Cave in over 60 years to bring the total Dead Sea Scroll caves to twelve. And stay tune there could be more caves to come in the future.

Dr. Randall Price, Scott Stripling (visiting) and myself.
The Qumran plateau is visible behind us.

Photos for download: (Credit for all photos below to Casey L. Olson and Oren Gutfeld):
-Archaeologists Oren Gutfeld & Ahiad Ovadia survey cave http://media.huji.ac.il/new/photos/hu170208_orenahiad.JPG
-Archaeologist Ahiad Ovadia digs carefully in cave http://media.huji.ac.il/new/photos/hu170208_ahiaddigs.jpg
-Ziad Abu Ganem and student filter material from cave http://media.huji.ac.il/new/photos/hu170208_ziad.jpg
-Fault cliff and cave entrance on the left http://media.huji.ac.il/new/photos/hu170208_caveentrance.JPG
-Fragments of jars that contained stolen scrolls http://media.huji.ac.il/new/photos/hu170208_jarfragments.JPG
-Remnant of scroll when removed from jar http://media.huji.ac.il/new/photos/hu170208_remnantremoved.jpg
-Neolithic flint tools found in cave http://media.huji.ac.il/new/photos/hu170208_tools.jpg
-Cloth that was used for wrapping the scrolls http://media.huji.ac.il/new/photos/hu170208_fabric.jpg
-Seal made of carnelian stone found in cave http://media.huji.ac.il/new/photos/hu170208_seal.jpg
-Filtering materials from the cave http://media.huji.ac.il/new/photos/hu170208_sorting.jpg

The one fact that none of the news reports mention is that a lone Canadian was involved. :-)

 News Articles based on the original press release by Hebrew University.

Nov 30, 2016

Marcus Paccius. . . Gargilius Antiquus Confirmed Governor of Judea

Fig. 1. Roman-era 1900-year-old inscription outs an unknown
official: “The city of Dor honors Marcus Paccius...governor of the
 province of Judea.” The inscription is now on display in  the
 Haifa University Library. Photo by Jenny Carmel.
We have the confirmation of another governor of the province of Judea. It appears that some news reports have given the impression that this is the first time we have heard of Marcus Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus. It is not the first inscription that mentions his name (this is acknowledged by the Phillippe Bohstrom's article in passing). However, there was some debate over where he ruled, either in Syria or Syria-Palaestina.  Ameling and Dabrowa argue “it is more likely that Dor belonged to the province of Judaea/Syria Palaestina, and that the honorand was governor of Judaea.”[2]  This has now been confirmed with the discovery of the new inscription.
     Thirty (30) governors (Prefects, Procurators, and Legates) of Judea are known from AD 6-135.[3]  Three governors are known from the New Testament: Pontius Pilate (the trial of Jesus; AD 26-36), Felix (Acts 23-24; AD 52-60), and Festus (Acts 25-26; AD 60-62). Now we know that the previously known Marcus Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus (see bibliography below),[4]  who was suspected of being the governor of Judea before the Bar Kochba Revolt (ca. AD 135) by Dabrowa and Amiling, has indeed been confirmed as the governor of Judea. [5]
     Recently (January 2016) a new Roman inscription (see Fig. 1) was recovered from off the coast of Dor by Haifa University underwater archaeologists.[6]
The Greek inscription (not Latin) reads:
“The City of Dor honors Marcus Paccius, son of Publius, Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus, governor of the province of Judea, as well as […] of the province of Syria, and patron of the city of Dor.”[7]
Fig. 2. Circular Stone inscription fragment on a round
base for a statue of the governor  Marcus Paccius
Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus
from Ameling et al. eds. Caesarea and the Middle 
Coast. Berlin, 2011, 443.
     An inscribed circular stone was previously discovered in 1948, by the East Gate of the ancient city of Dor, during the Israeli War of Independence (SEG 37.1477; 41.1547; 45.1946).[8]  In 1978 it was again located in the same place[9] and transferred to the Center of Nautical and Regional Archaeology at Nahsholim, where it is now on display (see Fig. 2).[10]  Gera and Cotton translated the Greek of the reconstructed circular stone inscription, discovered in 1947, as:.
(In honour of) Marcus Paccius, son of Publius, of the Tribe Quirina, Silvanus Quintus  Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus, legatus Augusti propraetore (i.e. governor) of  the Province of Syria.[11] PDF
     What do we know of Marcus Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus (Mark Paktsy Sylvan Quintus Coredo Gull Gargily Antiqua). His Father was Publius and a relative of Gargilius Antiquus from Africa (CIL 8.23246).[12]   Marcus Paccius was a Roman politician in the first half of the 2nd Century AD. He held the position of governor (consul suffectus) of the province of Arabia Petraea in approximately AD 116-119 and was confirmed at Dor between 122 and 125.[13]  It has now been confirmed that he was the governor of Judea.[14]  His son, Marcus Paccius Silvanus Goredius Lucius Gallus Lucius Pullaienus Gargilius Antiquus presumably was the consul suffectus in 161/162. His name appears on coins of Hadrianopolis, Perinthus, Philippopolis, Plotinopolis, and Pautalia.[15]

      On the previous inscription mentioning Marcus Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus See this Image.
Fig. 3. Inscription found in Thugga (Dougga) in the province
of Africa proconsularis (CIL 8.26579 = AE 1893, 100
cf. AE 1951, 71). The location indicates that it belongs
to his son Marcus Paccius Silvanus
Goredius [or Coredius] Lucius Gallus Lucius 
Pullaienus Gargilius Antiquus.

Ferrell Jenkins' article and photos of Dor.

 1). Dov Gera and Hannah M. Cotton. “A Dedication from Dor to a Governor of Syria.” Israel Exploration Journal 41, no. 4 (1991): 258–66. PDF
2). Walter Ameling et al., eds., Caesarea and the Middle Coast: Nos. 1121-2160, vol. 2, Corpus Inscriptionum Iudeaeae/Palaestinae (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2011), 844; E. Dabrowa, “M. Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus et son cursus honorum,” in Nunc de suebis dicendum est: studia archaeologica et historica Georgio Kolendo ab amicis et discipulis dicata, ed. Aleksander Bursche and Jerzy Kolendo (Warsaw: Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1995), 99.
3). See the list in Wikipedia: Judea (Roman province).
4).  First published in Hebrew in Qadmoniot 22 (1989): 42, but also found listed in the Dor inspection file (1951), of the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA).
5). Dabrowa, “M. Paccius,” 99–102.
6). Philippe Bohstrom, “Divers Find Unexpected Roman Inscription from the Eve of Bar-Kochba Revolt,” Haaretz, November 30, 2016, n.p., http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/archaeology/1.756193.
7). Ibid.
8). See E. Stern et al.: Tel Dor 1986, Preliminary Report, Israel Exploration Journal 37 (1987), p. 209; E. Stern et al.:  Tel Dor 1987, Preliminary Report, Israel Exploration Journal 39 (1989), p. 37.
9). Gera and Cotton, “A Dedication from Dor to a Governor of Syria,” 499 n.3.
10). Ibid., 497.
11). Ibid.
12). On Gargilii Antiqui, see Ibid., 500 n.41.
13).  William David Davies, Louis Finkelstein, and Steven T. Katz, The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 4, The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period (Cambridge University Press, 1984), 4:101; Dabrowa, “M. Paccius.” 99–102.
14). Bohstrom, “Divers Find Unexpected Roman Inscription.” n.p.
15). Bengt E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum, vol. 1 (Londongatan: Göteborg, 2009), 65; 22:028.

Ameling, Walter, Hannah M. Cotton, Werner Eck, Benjamin Isaac, Alla Kushnir-Stein, Haggai Misgav, Jonathan Price, and Ada Yardeni, eds. Caesarea and the Middle Coast: nos. 1121-2160. Vol. 2. Corpus Inscriptionum Iudeaeae/Palaestinae. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2011.
Bohstrom, Philippe. “Divers Find Unexpected Roman Inscription from the Eve of Bar-Kochba Revolt.” Haaretz, November 30, 2016. http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/archaeology/1.756193.
Cotton, Hannah M., and Werner Eck. Governors and Their Personnel on Latin Inscriptions from Caesarea Maritima. Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 7. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 2001.
CIL=Mommsen, Theodor, and Herbert Nesselhauf, eds. Corpus Inscriptionum latinarum: Diplomata militaria. Vol. 16. 20 vols. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1974
Dabrowa, E. “M. Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus et son cursus honorum.” In Nunc de suebis dicendum est: studia archaeologica et historica Georgio Kolendo ab amicis et discipulis dicata, edited by Aleksander Bursche and Jerzy Kolendo, 99–102. Warsaw: Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1995.
Daniel, Robert, Avner Ecker, Michael Shenkar, Claudia Sode, Marfa Heimbach, Dirk Koßmann, Naomi Schneider. Caesarea and the Middle Coast: 1121—2160. Walter de Gruyter, 2011. рр. 843—844.
Davies, William David, Louis Finkelstein, and Steven T. Katz. The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 4, The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period. Cambridge University Press, 1984, page 4:101.
Eck, Werner. “Ehrenstatuen Als Mittel Der Öffentlichen Kommunikation in Städten Der Provinz Iudaea/Syria Palaestina.” Electrum 21 (2014): 107–15.
Gera, Dov, and Hannah M. Cotton. “A Dedication from Dor to a Governor of Syria.” IEJ 41, no. 4 (1991): 258–66.
Sartre, M. “Inscriptions inédites de l'Arabie romaine.” Syria 50, no. 1 (1973): 223—33.
SEG = Chaniotis, Angelos, Thomas Corsten, N. Papazarkadas, and Rolf A. Tybout, eds. Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum. Leiden: Gieben, 1923.
Stern E. et al.: Tel Dor 1986, Preliminary Report, Israel Exploration Journal 37 (1987), 209.
Stern E. et al.:  Tel Dor 1987, Preliminary Report, Israel Exploration Journal 39 (1989), 37.
Thomasson, Bengt E. Laterculi Praesidum. Vol. 1. Londongatan: Göteborg, 2009
Urloiu, Rado. “Legoo II Traiana Fortis Sil Iudeea in Tempul Lui Hadrianus [In Rumanian].” ["Legio II Traiana Fortis And Judaea Under Hadrian’s Reign"] Cogito 2 (2010): 120–38. PDF in English

Oct 30, 2016

Papyrus mentions Jerusalem in Hebrew, Real or Forgery?

The rare inscription from the time of the First Temple period.
(photo credit: Shai Halevy, IAA)
Recently, a piece of Papyrus was recovered (from smugglers) that mentions the word "Jerusalem" in Hebrew. It is reportedly the oldest (7th Century BC) mention of "Jerusalem" in Hebrew ever produced thus far. See the the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA).
    However, keep in mind that the IAA have a vested interest in declaring that an early manuscript mentions “Jerusalem” for their land claims. Responding, the expert epigrapher Dr. Christopher A. Rollston, George Washington University, is calling for caution and believes it is a forgery. He lists his reasons on his blog. It does not mean it is a forgery, but we do need to be cautious about such finds that are not found in an excavation as they bring large sums of money and many are willing to pay big dollars for such a sensational find. There are certainly lots of other mentions of Jerusalem in other ancient texts, but non so early in Hebrew. However, these can be easily forged by experts.
    A conference, including sessions dealing with this Hebrew papyrus document, was held on October 27, 2016 at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. One of the respondents was the archaeologist Prof. Aren Maeir. He raised some questions about the authenticity of the document. Some of the points he made are included in an article by Nir Hasson in Haaretz, which Maeir reproduced on his Tel Es-Safi/Gath blog where he included another 15 points
    The IAA have responded asking for those claiming it is a forgery to provide proof.
    There will be a presentation on it at ASOR American Schools of Oriental Research next month (Nov, 2016)  in San Antonio. Lets wait and see what more experts have to say. No doubt there will be a large debate over this one, as is so often the case with such a sensational find.

Oct 6, 2016

Student Helps

Liberty Student Helps

BIBL 471 - Biblical Archaeology

Liberty University Students

Doing an online courses can be difficult, especially when the local library does not have a good selection of resources on the Bible or archaeology. Perhaps you are on a ship deployed in the middle of the Pacific or a housewife living in a small town. Access to a good theological library is difficult and where can you go to find resources. Here is a list of sources that will help, which are academic and accessible from anywhere you have the internet. Now you have no excuse for producing quality research. Liberty Students: Be sure to set up an off campus access account and use the Ezproxy login to gain access to many online articles and books (not necessary now with the new https://mylu.liberty.edu login. Be sure to check out the Liberty Religion & Philosophy Research Guide.

A short 4 min. video on an Introduction to Biblical Archaeology created by Logos Media Ed introducing their course.  It hosts James Strange, Jodi Magness, and my good friend, Scott Stripling director at Khirbet el-Maqatir.

to access Liberty "Library Subscription Databases" (i.e. Liberty Journal Finder, JSTOR, ALTA, and ProQuest) you must be logged into Liberty University's servers. How do I know? Your link will have .../2048/link in the URL. For example http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ If you go directly to www.jstor.org you will not have access to the paid subscription that Liberty has paid for.

Use the links under this heading to find quality academic sources.
Modified October 6, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media



BIBL 471 - Biblical Archaeology

Liberty University Students

When you copy words from a source—whether it’s a dictionary, another book, someone’s blog, an online article, or even another student’s paper—you will need to properly document your research. Failure to cite a source is plagiarism. Submitting a paper WITHOUT footnotes is also plagiarism. Whether intentional or unintentional, it is still plagiarism. I am required to take action when a student plagiarizes. The penalties for plagiarism range. You could fail an assignment, you can fail the course, and you can even be expelled from school.  If you have any questions about what constitutes plagiarism, Liberty has put together this helpful resource.

For a good definition of plagiarism, check out this brief article about plagiarism  which provides a good definition of plagiarism by S. E. Van Bramer, Widener University. And for more information look at; “Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It” and this Liberty Youtube Videos "Avoiding Plagiarism" and "What is Plagiarism".

Help with Citing your Sources:

1)  Content without “documentation” is a defective academic work and violation of the Honor Code. You MUST cite your work using " " marks, or indent and single space large quotes with footnotes formatted in Turabian format (not APA) when you:

  •    Quote directly, paraphrase, or summarize.
  •    Use an idea in your work that you obtained from somewhere else
  •    Refer to a point your instructor made
  •    Find a source on the Internet that gives you useful information
  •    Is not common knowledge (not everyone knows this)   

Here is a good way to think about citation:  If you can trace the origin of your thoughts, phrases, and arguments to any source except your own mind, you need to cite it using a footnote at the bottom of the page. When in doubt, cite your source! 
2)  You do not need Citation when you:

  •      Develop an idea entirely on your own
  •      Do primary research and want to report the results of the study
  •      An idea emerges in class, but is different than what was presented
  •      Are talking about your paper with someone and you have an idea
  •      Refer to a fact that is common knowledge (most know it)

Formatting your citations and papers

Concerning formatting of sources, here are some important guidelines within this course:
1)  For your formal citations in this course, BIBL 471, you MUST use the Turabian format (see Turabian Guides and Samples

2) Also, footnotes are good, but not necessary in your Discussion Board replies, but they MUST be used in your Main Contribution.

NOTE: Make sure you DO NOT use the APA format (
also called Turabian parenthetical in-text citations style) that looks like this (Price 1997, 23), but footnotes at the bottom of the page, formatted according to Turabian (Guides and the LIBERTY WEBSITE)

Modified October 11, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media

Turabian Guides

Turabian Guides

BIBL 471 - Biblical Archaeology

Liberty University Students

There are two styles of Chicago/Turabian (also called Society for Biblical Literature or SBL) formatting. For Biblical Studies courses Liberty prefers the Notes/Bibliography style, which has you place a footnote at the bottom of each page where a resource is quoted or paraphrased (NOT end-notes), and then have an alphabetically organized bibliography at the end of your paper.  The Notes/Bibliography style is found in chapters 16 and 17 of the Turabian Manual, and is also called Chicago/Turabian: Humanities style by some databases (such as Ebsco) that provide suggested citations.  Whenever you use suggested citations from a database, be sure to check that they are properly capitalized, italicized, Times New Roman 12 point (NOT Arial), etc.

The other Chicago/Turabian Author/Date style is much more like APA formatting and looks like this (Smith 1980, 34).  Do not use this style for Liberty papers in this class.  Examples for this style are found in chapters 18 and 19 of the Turabian Manual.  This style uses parenthetical "in-text" citations style and has a reference list at the end of the paper.

Turabian Guides

Use these helpful guides to format your paper in Turabian. Choose the one that suits you best.

Turabian Tools

  • ETURABIAN: This is a great tool to help put your footnotes in the proper format. The Service is free but you will need to set up a username and password.
  • ZOTERO: A helpful footnote tool is the free Firefox plug-in called Zotero. It is used for automatically inserting footnotes into your papers and automatically creating your bibliography and keeping it up to date with any new footnotes you add. You can follow the instructional videos online to set it up. There are also YouTube videos that will help. There are also a necessary word processor plugins, available for Microsoft Word and LibreOffice, OpenOffice and NeoOffice. This will allow you to place footnotes into your papers automatically. Word processor plugins are available here. Gather bibliographic information off of sites like Amazon.com and insert the footnote into your paper with a few clicks of your mouse. If you use Zotero then select their Citation Style: "Chicago Manual of Style (full note)."

Modified October 6, 2016. Copyright © 2014 Dr. David E. Graves