Nov 30, 2016

Marcus Paccius. . . Gargilius Antiquus Confirmed Governor of Judea

Fig. 1. Roman-era 1900-year-old inscription outs an unknown
official: “The city of Dor honors Marcus Paccius...governor of the
 province of Judea.” The inscription is now on display in  the
 Haifa University Library. Photo by Jenny Carmel.
We have the confirmation of another governor of the province of Judea. It appears that some news reports have given the impression that this is the first time we have heard of Marcus Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus. It is not the first inscription that mentions his name (this is acknowledged by the Phillippe Bohstrom's article in passing). However, there was some debate over where he ruled, either in Syria or Syria-Palaestina.  Ameling and Dabrowa argue “it is more likely that Dor belonged to the province of Judaea/Syria Palaestina, and that the honorand was governor of Judaea.”[2]  This has now been confirmed with the discovery of the new inscription.
     Thirty (30) governors (Prefects, Procurators, and Legates) of Judea are known from AD 6-135.[3]  Three governors are known from the New Testament: Pontius Pilate (the trial of Jesus; AD 26-36), Felix (Acts 23-24; AD 52-60), and Festus (Acts 25-26; AD 60-62). Now we know that the previously known Marcus Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus (see bibliography below),[4]  who was suspected of being the governor of Judea before the Bar Kochba Revolt (ca. AD 135) by Dabrowa and Amiling, has indeed been confirmed as the governor of Judea. [5]
     Recently (January 2016) a new Roman inscription (see Fig. 1) was recovered from off the coast of Dor by Haifa University underwater archaeologists.[6]
The Greek inscription (not Latin) reads:
“The City of Dor honors Marcus Paccius, son of Publius, Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus, governor of the province of Judea, as well as […] of the province of Syria, and patron of the city of Dor.”[7]
Fig. 2. Circular Stone inscription fragment on a round
base for a statue of the governor  Marcus Paccius
Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus
from Ameling et al. eds. Caesarea and the Middle 
Coast. Berlin, 2011, 443.
     An inscribed circular stone was previously discovered in 1948, by the East Gate of the ancient city of Dor, during the Israeli War of Independence (SEG 37.1477; 41.1547; 45.1946).[8]  In 1978 it was again located in the same place[9] and transferred to the Center of Nautical and Regional Archaeology at Nahsholim, where it is now on display (see Fig. 2).[10]  Gera and Cotton translated the Greek of the reconstructed circular stone inscription, discovered in 1947, as:.
(In honour of) Marcus Paccius, son of Publius, of the Tribe Quirina, Silvanus Quintus  Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus, legatus Augusti propraetore (i.e. governor) of  the Province of Syria.[11] PDF
     What do we know of Marcus Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus (Mark Paktsy Sylvan Quintus Coredo Gull Gargily Antiqua). His Father was Publius and a relative of Gargilius Antiquus from Africa (CIL 8.23246).[12]   Marcus Paccius was a Roman politician in the first half of the 2nd Century AD. He held the position of governor (consul suffectus) of the province of Arabia Petraea in approximately AD 116-119 and was confirmed at Dor between 122 and 125.[13]  It has now been confirmed that he was the governor of Judea.[14]  His son, Marcus Paccius Silvanus Coredius Lucius Gallus Lucius Pullaienus Gargilius Antiquus presumably was the consul suffectus in 161/162. His name appears on coins of Hadrianopolis, Perinthus, Philippopolis, Plotinopolis, and Pautalia.[15]

      On the previous inscription mentioning Marcus Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus See this Image.
Fig. 3.

Ferrell Jenkins' article and photos of Dor.

Footnotes
 1). Dov Gera and Hannah M. Cotton. “A Dedication from Dor to a Governor of Syria.” Israel Exploration Journal 41, no. 4 (1991): 258–66. PDF
2). Walter Ameling et al., eds., Caesarea and the Middle Coast: Nos. 1121-2160, vol. 2, Corpus Inscriptionum Iudeaeae/Palaestinae (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2011), 844; E. Dabrowa, “M. Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus et son cursus honorum,” in Nunc de suebis dicendum est: studia archaeologica et historica Georgio Kolendo ab amicis et discipulis dicata, ed. Aleksander Bursche and Jerzy Kolendo (Warsaw: Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1995), 99.
3). See the list in Wikipedia: Judea (Roman province).
4).  First published in Hebrew in Qadmoniot 22 (1989): 42, but also found listed in the Dor inspection file (1951), of the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA).
5). Dabrowa, “M. Paccius,” 99–102.
6). Philippe Bohstrom, “Divers Find Unexpected Roman Inscription from the Eve of Bar-Kochba Revolt,” Haaretz, November 30, 2016, n.p., http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/archaeology/1.756193.
7). Ibid.
8). See E. Stern et al.: Tel Dor 1986, Preliminary Report, Israel Exploration Journal 37 (1987), p. 209; E. Stern et al.:  Tel Dor 1987, Preliminary Report, Israel Exploration Journal 39 (1989), p. 37.
9). Gera and Cotton, “A Dedication from Dor to a Governor of Syria,” 499 n.3.
10). Ibid., 497.
11). Ibid.
12). On Gargilii Antiqui, see Ibid., 500 n.41.
13).  William David Davies, Louis Finkelstein, and Steven T. Katz, The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 4, The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period (Cambridge University Press, 1984), 4:101; Dabrowa, “M. Paccius.” 99–102.
14). Bohstrom, “Divers Find Unexpected Roman Inscription.” n.p.
15). Bengt E. Thomasson, Laterculi Praesidum, vol. 1 (Londongatan: Göteborg, 2009), 65; 22:028.


Bibliography
Ameling, Walter, Hannah M. Cotton, Werner Eck, Benjamin Isaac, Alla Kushnir-Stein, Haggai Misgav, Jonathan Price, and Ada Yardeni, eds. Caesarea and the Middle Coast: nos. 1121-2160. Vol. 2. Corpus Inscriptionum Iudeaeae/Palaestinae. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2011.
Bohstrom, Philippe. “Divers Find Unexpected Roman Inscription from the Eve of Bar-Kochba Revolt.” Haaretz, November 30, 2016. http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/archaeology/1.756193.
Cotton, Hannah M., and Werner Eck. Governors and Their Personnel on Latin Inscriptions from Caesarea Maritima. Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 7. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 2001.
CIL=Mommsen, Theodor, and Herbert Nesselhauf, eds. Corpus Inscriptionum latinarum: Diplomata militaria. Vol. 16. 20 vols. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1974
Dabrowa, E. “M. Paccius Silvanus Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus et son cursus honorum.” In Nunc de suebis dicendum est: studia archaeologica et historica Georgio Kolendo ab amicis et discipulis dicata, edited by Aleksander Bursche and Jerzy Kolendo, 99–102. Warsaw: Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 1995.
Daniel, Robert, Avner Ecker, Michael Shenkar, Claudia Sode, Marfa Heimbach, Dirk Koßmann, Naomi Schneider. Caesarea and the Middle Coast: 1121—2160. Walter de Gruyter, 2011. рр. 843—844.
Davies, William David, Louis Finkelstein, and Steven T. Katz. The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 4, The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period. Cambridge University Press, 1984, page 4:101.
Eck, Werner. “Ehrenstatuen Als Mittel Der Öffentlichen Kommunikation in Städten Der Provinz Iudaea/Syria Palaestina.” Electrum 21 (2014): 107–15.
Gera, Dov, and Hannah M. Cotton. “A Dedication from Dor to a Governor of Syria.” IEJ 41, no. 4 (1991): 258–66.
Sartre, M. “Inscriptions inédites de l'Arabie romaine.” Syria 50, no. 1 (1973): 223—33.
SEG = Chaniotis, Angelos, Thomas Corsten, N. Papazarkadas, and Rolf A. Tybout, eds. Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum. Leiden: Gieben, 1923.
Stern E. et al.: Tel Dor 1986, Preliminary Report, Israel Exploration Journal 37 (1987), 209.
Stern E. et al.:  Tel Dor 1987, Preliminary Report, Israel Exploration Journal 39 (1989), 37.
Thomasson, Bengt E. Laterculi Praesidum. Vol. 1. Londongatan: Göteborg, 2009
Urloiu, Rado. “Legoo II Traiana Fortis Sil Iudeea in Tempul Lui Hadrianus [In Rumanian].” ["Legio II Traiana Fortis And Judaea Under Hadrian’s Reign"] Cogito 2 (2010): 120–38. PDF in English

Oct 30, 2016

Papyrus mentions Jerusalem in Hebrew, Real or Forgery?


The rare inscription from the time of the First Temple period.
(photo credit: Shai Halevy, IAA)
Recently, a piece of Papyrus was recovered (from smugglers) that mentions the word "Jerusalem" in Hebrew. It is reportedly the oldest (7th Century BC) mention of "Jerusalem" in Hebrew ever produced thus far. See the the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA).
    However, keep in mind that the IAA have a vested interest in declaring that an early manuscript mentions “Jerusalem” for their land claims. Responding, the expert epigrapher Dr. Christopher A. Rollston, George Washington University, is calling for caution and believes it is a forgery. He lists his reasons on his blog. It does not mean it is a forgery, but we do need to be cautious about such finds that are not found in an excavation as they bring large sums of money and many are willing to pay big dollars for such a sensational find. There are certainly lots of other mentions of Jerusalem in other ancient texts, but non so early in Hebrew. However, these can be easily forged by experts.
    A conference, including sessions dealing with this Hebrew papyrus document, was held on October 27, 2016 at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. One of the respondents was the archaeologist Prof. Aren Maeir. He raised some questions about the authenticity of the document. Some of the points he made are included in an article by Nir Hasson in Haaretz, which Maeir reproduced on his Tel Es-Safi/Gath blog where he included another 15 points
    The IAA have responded asking for those claiming it is a forgery to provide proof.
    There will be a presentation on it at ASOR American Schools of Oriental Research next month (Nov, 2016)  in San Antonio. Lets wait and see what more experts have to say. No doubt there will be a large debate over this one, as is so often the case with such a sensational find.

Oct 6, 2016

Student Helps

Liberty Student Helps

BIBL 471 - Biblical Archaeology

Liberty University Students

Doing an online courses can be difficult, especially when the local library does not have a good selection of resources on the Bible or archaeology. Perhaps you are on a ship deployed in the middle of the Pacific or a housewife living in a small town. Access to a good theological library is difficult and where can you go to find resources. Here is a list of sources that will help, which are academic and accessible from anywhere you have the internet. Now you have no excuse for producing quality research. Liberty Students: Be sure to set up an off campus access account and use the Ezproxy login to gain access to many online articles and books (not necessary now with the new https://mylu.liberty.edu login. Be sure to check out the Liberty Religion & Philosophy Research Guide.

A short 4 min. video on an Introduction to Biblical Archaeology created by Logos Media Ed introducing their course.  It hosts James Strange, Jodi Magness, and my good friend, Scott Stripling director at Khirbet el-Maqatir.

NOTE:
to access Liberty "Library Subscription Databases" (i.e. Liberty Journal Finder, JSTOR, ALTA, and ProQuest) you must be logged into Liberty University's servers. How do I know? Your link will have .../2048/link in the URL. For example http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ If you go directly to www.jstor.org you will not have access to the paid subscription that Liberty has paid for.

Use the links under this heading to find quality academic sources.
Modified October 6, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media

Plagiarism

Plagiarism

BIBL 471 - Biblical Archaeology

Liberty University Students

When you copy words from a source—whether it’s a dictionary, another book, someone’s blog, an online article, or even another student’s paper—you will need to properly document your research. Failure to cite a source is plagiarism. Submitting a paper WITHOUT footnotes is also plagiarism. Whether intentional or unintentional, it is still plagiarism. I am required to take action when a student plagiarizes. The penalties for plagiarism range. You could fail an assignment, you can fail the course, and you can even be expelled from school.  If you have any questions about what constitutes plagiarism, Liberty has put together this helpful resource.

For a good definition of plagiarism, check out this brief article about plagiarism  which provides a good definition of plagiarism by S. E. Van Bramer, Widener University. And for more information look at; “Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It” and this Liberty Youtube Videos "Avoiding Plagiarism" and "What is Plagiarism".

Help with Citing your Sources:

1)  Content without “documentation” is a defective academic work and violation of the Honor Code. You MUST cite your work using " " marks, or indent and single space large quotes with footnotes formatted in Turabian format (not APA) when you:

  •    Quote directly, paraphrase, or summarize.
  •    Use an idea in your work that you obtained from somewhere else
  •    Refer to a point your instructor made
  •    Find a source on the Internet that gives you useful information
  •    Is not common knowledge (not everyone knows this)   

NOTE: DO NOT COPY AND PASTE ANY INFORMATION FROM ANY WEBSITE WITHOUT PROPER “ ” MARKS AND PROPERLY FORMATTED FOOTNOTES (go at the bottom of the page) IN ALL PAPERS.         
       
Here is a good way to think about citation:  If you can trace the origin of your thoughts, phrases, and arguments to any source except your own mind, you need to cite it using a footnote at the bottom of the page. When in doubt, cite your source! 
 
2)  You do not need Citation when you:

  •      Develop an idea entirely on your own
  •      Do primary research and want to report the results of the study
  •      An idea emerges in class, but is different than what was presented
  •      Are talking about your paper with someone and you have an idea
  •      Refer to a fact that is common knowledge (most know it)

Formatting your citations and papers

Concerning formatting of sources, here are some important guidelines within this course:
 
1)  For your formal citations in this course, BIBL 471, you MUST use the Turabian format (see Turabian Guides and Samples
).

2) Also, footnotes are good, but not necessary in your Discussion Board replies, but they MUST be used in your Main Contribution.

NOTE: Make sure you DO NOT use the APA format (
also called Turabian parenthetical in-text citations style) that looks like this (Price 1997, 23), but footnotes at the bottom of the page, formatted according to Turabian (Guides and the LIBERTY WEBSITE)

Modified October 11, 2016. Copyright © 2016 Electronic Christian Media

Turabian Guides

Turabian Guides

BIBL 471 - Biblical Archaeology

Liberty University Students

There are two styles of Chicago/Turabian (also called Society for Biblical Literature or SBL) formatting. For Biblical Studies courses Liberty prefers the Notes/Bibliography style, which has you place a footnote at the bottom of each page where a resource is quoted or paraphrased (NOT end-notes), and then have an alphabetically organized bibliography at the end of your paper.  The Notes/Bibliography style is found in chapters 16 and 17 of the Turabian Manual, and is also called Chicago/Turabian: Humanities style by some databases (such as Ebsco) that provide suggested citations.  Whenever you use suggested citations from a database, be sure to check that they are properly capitalized, italicized, Times New Roman 12 point (NOT Arial), etc.

The other Chicago/Turabian Author/Date style is much more like APA formatting and looks like this (Smith 1980, 34).  Do not use this style for Liberty papers in this class.  Examples for this style are found in chapters 18 and 19 of the Turabian Manual.  This style uses parenthetical "in-text" citations style and has a reference list at the end of the paper.

Turabian Guides

Use these helpful guides to format your paper in Turabian. Choose the one that suits you best.

Turabian Tools

  • ETURABIAN: This is a great tool to help put your footnotes in the proper format. The Service is free but you will need to set up a username and password.
  • ZOTERO: A helpful footnote tool is the free Firefox plug-in called Zotero. It is used for automatically inserting footnotes into your papers and automatically creating your bibliography and keeping it up to date with any new footnotes you add. You can follow the instructional videos online to set it up. There are also YouTube videos that will help. There are also a necessary word processor plugins, available for Microsoft Word and LibreOffice, OpenOffice and NeoOffice. This will allow you to place footnotes into your papers automatically. Word processor plugins are available here. Gather bibliographic information off of sites like Amazon.com and insert the footnote into your paper with a few clicks of your mouse. If you use Zotero then select their Citation Style: "Chicago Manual of Style (full note)."

Modified October 6, 2016. Copyright © 2014 Dr. David E. Graves

Writing Helps

Writing Helps

BIBL 471 - Biblical Archaeology

Liberty University Students

Are you having difficulty with written assignments? Liberty can help.
  • The Liberty Online Writing Center (OWC): Would you like a writing tutor? Tutors (not editors or proofreaders) are available through the OWC. If you struggle writing papers, I encourage you to take advantage of this resource. It is free to Liberty students. Follow the “General Guidelines” link found on the left column on the OWC homepage. There are a wide variety of resources available including handouts, worksheets, and presentations to improve your academic writing skills.

  • Online Tutor.com: is free to Liberty students for 20 hours of access each semester. You must access this free service through Liberty's website to take advantage of the free service. They won't write your paper for you, but will recommend some better writing skills for you.
  • Liberty Center for Writing and Languages: Writing Tutorial Videos

  • How to write a Research Paper. Video
  • OnLine Tutorials: Help with things such as locating books, setting up your android email account, how to budget your time and Tips for Taking Online Quizzes and Tests.

  • How to use Academic Resources. Interactive website (InfoRM)

  • Help with Turabian Style

I highly recommend using these services as they complement each other

 
Modified October 11, 2016. Copyright © 2014 Dr. David E. Graves

Turabian Tips

Turabian Tips

BIBL 471 - Biblical Archaeology

Liberty University Students


  1. The syntax for the footnote for a simple book is simple [AuthorFirstname + AuthorLastname, Title, (City: Publisher, Date), Page no.].

  2. Use research tools like Zotero.org or eturabian.com to enter footnotes automatically.

  3. Copy and paste the sources from my blog into your footnote for the correct Turabian format.

  4. Copy text from a website into Notepad to strip the hidden html code from the text, then from notepad copy and paste into your paper.

  5. MS Word Shortcut: To enter a footnote in your paper using MS Word use: Ctrl + Alt + F. Now enter your footnote. (YouTube Video

  6. TWO TYPES OF TURABIAN: Don't confuse the Turabian "parenthetical "in-text" citations style" which looks like this (Smith 1980, 34), with Turabian Notes/Bibliography style (Footnote at the bottom of the page)

  7. Don't use MS Word "References/ Insert Citations." Microsoft Format Feature in MS Word for Chicago and Turabian DOES NOT enter the footnotes correctly in your document, so do not use it for your footnotes and bibliography. When you select Turabian in the Microsoft Word feature it formats the Footnote in APA (also called parenthetical in-text citations Turabian style) which is not what we use in this class. Word will make your footnotes look like this (Price 2003, 345). 

  8. Wikipedia. Don't quote it!!! The material is notorious for being unreliable and inaccurate. NEVER place Wikipedia in your bibliography.
  9. Use Wikipedia to check out the footnotes and bibliography at the bottom of the articles where they will often have links to PDF files for download able books.

  10. Use Google Books or Amazon to read parts of books.

  11. Tips for Taking Online Quizzes and Tests VIDEO

Modified October 11, 2016. Copyright © 2014 Dr. David E. Graves

Turabian Samples

Turabian Samples

BIBL 471 - Biblical Archaeology

Liberty University Students



Index


There are two styles of Chicago/Turabian (also called Society for Biblical Literature or SBL) formatting. For Biblical Studies cources Liberty prefers the Notes/Bibliography style, which has you place a footnote at the bottom of each page where a resource is quoted or paraphrased (NOT end-notes), and then have an alphabetically organized bibliography at the end of your paper.  The Notes/Bibliography style is found in chapters 16 and 17 of the Turabian Manual, and is also called Chicago/Turabian: Humanities style by some databases (such as Ebsco) that provide suggested citations.  Whenever you use suggested citations from a database, be sure to check that they are properly capitalized, italicized, Times New Roman 12 point (NOT Arial), etc.

The other Chicago/Turabian Author/Date style is much more like APA formatting and looks like this (Smith 1980, 34).  Do not use this style for Liberty papers in this class.  Examples for this style are found in chapters 18 and 19 of the Turabian Manual.  This style uses parenthetical "in-text" citations style and has a reference list at the end of the paper.

Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations presents the Chicago Manual of Style

Book

Footnote: 2 Randall Price. The Stones Cry Out: What Archaeology Reveals About the Truth of the Bible (Eugene, Oreg.: Harvest House, 1997), 106.
                   3 David E. Graves, Biblical Archaeology: An Introduction with Recent Discoveries That Support the Reliability of the Bible, vol. 1 (Moncton, N.B.: Graves, 2014), 23.
Formula: FirstName LastName. BookTitleInItalics (City, state: Publisher, Date), PageNumber.

Second Time Used:  Price, The Stones Cry Out, 106.
                                  Graves, Biblical Archaeology, 25.
 

Bibliography:
Alphabetical by last name
                        Graves, David E. Biblical Archaeology: An Introduction with Recent Discoveries That Support the Reliability of the Bible. Vol. 1. Moncton, N.B.: Graves, 2014.

                        Price, J. Randall. The Stones Cry Out: What Archaeology Reveals About the Truth of the Bible. Eugene, Oreg.: Harvest House, 1997.
Formula:
 LastName, LastName. BookTitleInItalics. City, state: Publisher, Date.

Back to the Index

Edited Book


Footnote: 2 James Karl Hoffmeier and Alan R. Millard, eds., The Future of Biblical Archaeology: Reassessing Methodologies and Assumptions, The Proceedings of a Symposium, August 12-14, 2001 at Trinity International University (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2004), 106.
Formula: FirstName LastName, eds., BookTitleInItalics (City, state: Publisher, Date), PageNumber.

Second Time Used:  Hoffmeier and Millard, eds., The Future of Biblical Archaeology, 106.
 

Bibliography:
Hoffmeier, James Karl, and Alan R. Millard, eds. The Future of Biblical Archaeology: Reassessing Methodologies and Assumptions. The Proceedings of a Symposium, August 12-14, 2001 at Trinity International University. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2004.
Formula:  LastName, LastName. BookTitleInItalics. City, state: Publisher, Date.

Back to the Index

Journal Article

Footnote: 2 Steven Collins, “If You Thought You Knew the Location of Sodom and Gomorrah... Think Again,” Biblical Research Bulletin 7, no. 4 (2007): 3.
Formula:  FirstName LastName. "TitleInQuotationMarks," JournalNameInItalics Volume, No. (Date): PageNumber.

Second Time Used: Collins, “If You Thought You Knew the Location of Sodom and Gomorrah,” 3.
 
Bibliography: Collins, Steven. “If You Thought You Knew the Location of Sodom and Gomorrah... Think Again.” Biblical Research Bulletin 7, no. 4 (2007): 1–6.
Formula: LastName, LastName. "TitleInQuotationMarks," JournalNameInItalics Volume, No. (Date): AllPageNumbersForArticle.

Back to the Index

Dictionary or Encyclopedia Article

Footnote: 2 R. L. Alden, “Sodom,” in The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible: Revised Full-Color Edition, ed. Merrill C. Tenney and Moises Silva, vol. 5, 5 vols. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2009), 467.
Formula:  FirstName LastNameWhoWroteArticle, "ArticleTitleInQuotationMarks," in DictionaryNameInItalics, EditorsNames, Volume, HowManyVolumes (City, State: Publisher, Date), PageNumber.

Second Time Used:   3Alden, “Sodom,” 467.
 
Bibliography: Alden, R. L. “Sodom.” In The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible: Revised Full-Color Edition, edited by Merrill C. Tenney and Moises Silva, Revised., 5:466–68. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2009.
Formula:  LastNameWhoWroteArticle, FirstName,  "ArticleTitleInQuotationMarks," in DictionaryNameInItalics,  EditorsNames, Volume:AllPageNumbersForArticle. City, State: Publisher, Date).
OR
Tenney, Merrill C., and Moises Silva, eds. The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible: Revised Full-Color Edition. 5 vols. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan, 2009.

Formula:  LastName, FirstName, eds. DictionaryNameInItalics,  HowManyVolumes (City, State: Publisher, Date).

Back to the Index


An Internet Publication WITH a Print Counterpart

  If you have downloaded the PDF from the internet and have pages with page numbers then there is no need to provide the Internet link.
Footnote listed by first name: 29 David Gottlieb, “Biblical Veracity and Archaeology,” Mesora 23 no. 2 (2012): 2. 
Second footnote from the same book would be:
30 Gottlieb, “Biblical Veracity,” 4.


Bibliography listed by last name:
Gottlieb, David, “Biblical Veracity and Archaeology,” Mesora
23 no. 2 (2012): 1-4.

Back to the Index

An Internet Publication WITHOUT a Print Counterpart

When you have a blog or website that does not have page numbers.

Footnotes listed by first name:   33Ashley Scott and Jerold Aust, “Jericho: Does the Evidence Prove or Disprove the Bible?” n.p. [cited 5 May 2013]. Online: http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2009/01/30/Jericho-Does-the-Evidence-Disprove-or-Prove-the-Bible.aspx#Article.
Second footnote from the same book would be:
34Scott and Aust, “Jericho," n.p.


Bibliography listed by last name: Scott, Ashley and Jerold Aust, “Jericho: Does the Evidence Prove or Disprove the Bible?” No pages. Cited 5 May 2013. Online: http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2009/01/30/Jericho-Does-the-Evidence-Disprove-or-Prove-the-Bible.aspx#Article

Back to the Index

Modified October 6, 2016. Copyright © 2014 Dr. David E. Graves